1. Cut out gene for insulin from DNA
  2. Insert into plasmid to make recombinant DNA
  3. Insert into bacteria (E.coli)
  4. Bacteria produce insulin
  5. Purify insulin

Stem Cell Treatment

  • Undifferentiated cells that can become any cell type
  • Differentiated cells have genes switched on or off in a sequence
  • Stem cells could be made to turn into β-cells which would respond to high levels of blood glucose by secreting insulin

This treatment is difficult because:

  • immune system may reject transplanted β-cells
  • large volumes of β-cells required