• Conservation, preservation and management of the environment and natural resources
  • Two types:
    • In situ
    • Ex situ


  • maintains genetic diversity and ability to adapt
  • preserves interdependent relationships
  • cheaper
  • eg wildlife reserves, marine conservation zones


  • normally used in conjunction with in-situ measures
  • eg, botanical gardens, seed banks, captive breeding programs

Conservation Agreements

International Union for Conservation of Nature

  • Publishes conservation status of threatened animals (RED list)
  • Establishment of CITES (Convention on Internal Trade of Endangered Species)
    • regulates international trade of plant/animal specimens and their products

The Rio Convention

  • Convention of Biological Diversity—strategies for sustainable development
  • United Nations framework convention on climate change—agreement to stabilise greenhouse gases.
  • United Nations Convention to combat desertification
    • prevents transformation of fertile land to desert
    • reduce the effects of drought

Countryside Stewardship Scheme

  • Enhance and conserve English landscape
    • sustain beauty and biodiversity
    • improve/extend/create habitats for wildlife
    • restoring neglected land, conserving archaeological/historic features
    • improve opportunities for countryside enjoyment
    • now replaced by the Environment Stewardship Scheme