The Bartlett & Ghoshal Model indicates the strategic options for businesses wanting to manage their international operations based on two pressures: local responsiveness and global integration.

Global Strategy

  • Highly centralised
  • Focused on efficiency
  • Little sharing of expertise locally
  • Standardised products

Examples include:

  • Pfizer
  • Cat

Transnational Strategy

  • Complex to achieve
  • Aims to maximise local responsiveness but also gain benefits from global integration
  • Wide sharing of expertise

Examples include:

  • Unilever
  • Starbucks

International Strategy

  • Aims to achieve efficiency by focusing on domestic activities
  • International operations are largely managed centrally
  • Relatively little adaptation of product to local needs

Examples include:

  • Ups
  • McDonald’s


  • Aims to maximise benefits of meeting local market needs through extensive customisation
  • Decision-making decentralised
  • Local businesses treated as separate businesses
  • Strategies for each country

Examples include:

  • Nestle
  • mTV