NucleusNot presentPresent
DNACircularNucleus (linear)
DNA OrganisationProteins foldChromosomes
Extra chroma DNAPlasmidOnly present in certain organelles (chloroplast, mitochondria)
OrganellesNon-membrane boundMembrane Bound
Cell WallPresentPresent in some cases
ReproductionBinary Fission(a)sexual
Cell TypeUnicellularMulti-cellular
Cell Surface-MembranePresentPresent


Endosymbiosis is the theory that a larger cell engulfed bacteria with energy producing capabilities—eventually becoming chloroplasts and mitochondria.

Evidence includes mitochondria and chloroplasts dividing like bacteria; have individual DNA; dividing independently of the cell

Gram Staining

Microscopy stain to help identify different bacteria.

Gram Positive Bacteria

  • Colour: blue
  • More peptidoglycan

Gram Negative Bacteria

  • Colour: red
  • Less peptidoglycan